Damage mechanisms for near-infrared radiation induced cataract

  • Datum:
  • Plats: Enghoffsalen, Entrance 50, 1st floor, Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala
  • Doktorand: Yu, Zhaohua
  • Om avhandlingen
  • Arrangör: Oftalmiatrik
  • Kontaktperson: Yu, Zhaohua
  • Disputation


Purpose: 1) To estimate the threshold dose and the time evolution for cataract induction by near infrared radiation (IRR) in seconds exposure time domain; 2) to determine the ocular temperature development during the threshold exposure; 3) to investigate if near IRR induces cumulative lens damage considering irradiance exposure time reciprocity; 4) to experimentally estimate the temperature in the lens indirectly from the measurement of temperature-induced light scattering increase.

Methods: Before exposure, 6-weeks-old albino rats were anesthetized and the pupils of both eyes were dilated. Then the animals were unilaterally exposed to 1090 nm IRR within the pupil area. Temperature was recorded with thermocouples placed in the selected positions of the eye. At the planned post-exposure time, the animal was sacrificed and the lenses were extracted for measurements of forward light scattering and macroscopic imaging (Paper I-III). In Paper IV, the lens was extracted from six-weeks-old albino Sprague-Dawley female rats and put into a temperature-controlled cuvette filled with balanced salt solution. Altogether, 80 lenses were equally divided on four temperature groups, 37, 40, 43 and 46 ºC. Each lens was exposed for 5 minutes to temperature depending on group belonging while the intensity of forward light scattering was recorded.

Results: The in vivo exposure to 197 W/cm2 1090 nm IRR required a minimum 8 s for cataract induction. There was approximately 16 h delay between exposure and light scattering development in the lens. The same radiant exposure was found to cause a temperature increase of 10 °C at the limbus and 26 °C close to the retina. The in vivo exposure to 96 W/cm2 1090 nm IRR with exposure time up to 1 h resulted in an average temperature elevation of 7 °C at the limbus with the cornea humidified and no significant light scattering was induced one week after exposure. Arrhenius equation implies that the natural logarithm of the inclination coefficient for light scattering increase is linearly dependent on the inverse of the temperature. The proportionality constant and the intercept, estimated as CI(0.95)s, were 9.6±2.4 x103 K and 22.8±7.7. Further, it implies that if averaging 20 measurements of inclination coefficients in a new experiment at constant heat load, the confidence limits for prediction of temperature correspond to ±1.9 °C.

Conclusions: It is indicated that IRR at 1090 nm produces thermal but not cumulatively photochemical cataract, probably by indirect heat conduction from absorption in tissues surrounding the lens. Applying the Arrhenius equation the in vivo temperature in the lens can be determined retrospectively with sufficient resolution.