The biological and physical performance of high strength dicalcium phosphate cement in physiologically relevant models.
- Datum: 2017-06-02 kl 09:15
- Plats: Å2001, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala
- Doktorand: Pujari-Palmer, Michael
- Om avhandlingen
- Arrangör: Tillämpad materialvetenskap
- Kontaktperson: Pujari-Palmer, Michael
The chemical properties of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are very similar to the mineral phase of bone. CPCs are, consequently, very effective substrates (scaffolds) for tissue engineering; bone and stem cells attach readily, and can proliferate and differentiate to form new bone tissue. Unlike other CPCs that may remain largely unchanged in the body for years, such as hydroxyapatite, dicalcium phosphates are remodelled by the body and rapidly converted to new bone. Unfortunately, the dicalcium phosphates are also typically too weak to support load bearing in the human body. Our laboratory has recently developed a novel, high strength brushite CPC, (hsCPC), which can reach 10-50 fold higher failure strength than many commercially available CPCs. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the physical, chemical and biological performance of hsCPCs in physiologically relevant model of drug release, load bearing, osteoconductivity, and as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering.
Multiple CPCs were compared in a model of screw augmentation to determine whether the physical properties of the cement, such as bulk strength and porosity, affected orthopaedic screw holding strength. In an in vitro model of bone regeneration stem cells were grown on macroporous scaffolds that were fabricated from hsCPC. Drug releasing scaffolds were fabricated to examine whether the low porosity of hsCPC impeded drug release during a 4-week incubation period. The biological activity of an incorporated drug, Rebamipide, was examined after acute and chronic incubation periods. In the drug release study it was noted that the biological response to hsCPC was significantly greater than tissue culture grade polystyrene, even in scaffold groups without drug. The mechanism underlying this biological response was further investigated by testing the effect of pyrophosphate, a common cement additive, on bone cell proliferation and differentiation. This thesis concludes that a high strength cement can produce significant improvement in screw augmentation strength, if there is sufficient cortical bone near the augmentation site. The hsCPC is also cytocompatible, and can support bone and stem cell proliferation and differentiation. hsCPC scaffolds stimulated osteogenic gene expression comparable to native bone scaffolds. hsCPC scaffolds are also capable of delivering drug for up to 4 weeks, in vitro. Finally, a cement additive, pyrophosphate, stimulated differentiation but not proliferation of bone cells.